The breeding ecology of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) on Skomer Island: the effects of the Sea Empress oil spill (PDF)

The immediate effects of marine oil spills on seabirds in the vicinity of the spill are well known, and large-scale mortality resulting from fouling of plumage and ingestion of oil have been well documented. However in addition to acute lethal effects, populations may experience longer-term sublethal effects of ingested hydrocarbons. These have potentially profound consequences […]

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